Schema & Migration

Operate stores data in Elasticsearch. On first start Operate will create all required indices and templates. All information describing Elasticsearch schema and required for migration is provided in schema folder of Operate distribution.


Operate uses several Elasticsearch indices that are mostly created by using templates.
For each index exists a JSON file that describes how the index is structured and how it is configured. These JSON files follow the Elasticsearch REST API format and can be found in schema/create folder of distribution.

Index names follow the defined pattern:


, where datatype defines which data is stored in the index, e.g. user, variable etc., schemaversion represents version of Operate, date represents finished date of archived data (see Data retention).

Knowing index name pattern, it is possible to customize index settings by creating Elasticsearch templates (Example of an index template) E.g. to define desired number of shards and replicas, you can define following template:

PUT _template/template_operate
  "index_patterns": ["operate_*"],
  "settings": {
    "number_of_shards": 5,
    "number_of_replicas": 2

Note: In order for these settings to work, template must be created before Operate first run.


Version of Operate is reflected in Elasticsearch object names, e.g. operate-user-1.3.0_ index contains user data for Operate v. 1.3.0. When upgrading from one version of Operate to another, migration of data must be performed. Operate distribution provides scripts to perform data migration strictly from previous minor Operate version to the next minor version, meaning that if you make bigger upgrade step, e.g. 1.2.0 -> 1.4.0, migration must be performed step by step for each minor version: 1.2.0 -> 1.3.0 and 1.3.0 -> 1.4.0.

Information to migrate schema from v. x.y-1.z to x.y.z (sometimes from x-1.y.z to x.0.0) can be found in the latter version distribution in schema/migrate folder.

The migration uses Elasticsearch processors and pipelines to reindex the data. All required Elasticsearch scripts are provided in schema/migrate folder of the distribution. Additionally example shell script ( is provided that executes the following steps:

  1. Remove old templates
  2. Create new templates and indices
  3. Create pipelines
  4. Migrate data
  5. Remove pipelines and old indices

How to migrate

Make sure that Elasticsearch that contains Operate data is running. The migration script will connect by default to http://localhost:9200. Otherwise you need to specify the address.

Follow the next steps to migrate:

  1. Change to schema folder Operate
  2. Extract
  3. Execute [elasticsearch host:port] shell script
cd schema
sh ./

All requests and responses are written to the console. Here you can see if the migration was successful.

Note: You might need to adjust script to suit your needs.

Important! You should take care of data backup before performing migration.

File organization in schema folder

+ create
|   |
|   + index     - Indices
|   |
|   + template  - Templates
+ migrate
|   |
|   + pipeline  - Pipelines
|   | 
|   + reindex   - Reindex requests